Skip to main content

Full text of "The four kings of Canada : being a succint account of the four Indian princes lately arriv'd from North America. With a particular description of their country, their strange and remarkable religion, feasts, marriages, burials, remedies for their sick, customs, manners, constitution, habits, sports, war, peace, policy, hunting, fishing, utensils belonging to the savages, with several other extraordinary things worthy observation, as to the natural or curious productions, beauty, or fertility of that part of the world"

See other formats

■e:i«.m.i-w ».^— ^^ 




Itttwrattg of pittabtirglj 

Darlington Memorial Library 

ailaB0.w7'-fi> - 

<:^3s't7 —- 

^ w- 


su'-i'l,.:. , 


Four Kings 



A Succinct Account of the 

Four Indian Princes lately arriv'd 
from North , America. 


A particular Description of their Country, 
their strange and remarkable Eehglon, Feasts, 
Marriages, Burials, Remedies for their Sick, 
Customs, Manners, Constitution, Habits, 
Sports, War, Peace, Policy, Hunting, Fish- 
ins;, Utensils belonoririG^ to the Savajxes, with 
several other Extraordinary Things worthy 
Observation, as to the natural or curious 
Productions, Beauty, or Fertility of that 
Part of the World. 

Enier'^din the Hall- Book of the Company of '^i^Wf^- 
ners, pursuant to Act of Parliament. 

T ^" 

LO ND 1^ 

Printed : And sold by Jo/m Baker, at the Black Boy ia 
Pater-Noster-Itow. 1710. Price Six-pence. 





our Kings 


O F 

Efore I enter upon tlie Defcription of that 
Part of Canada poffefs'd by the four ht- 
dian Kings now arriv'd in this Ifland, it 
will be necefTary to give fome Account of thofe 
Princes, and the Caufe of their Yojage to fuch 
a Part of the VVorid, where none, or few of 
their Predeceilbrs ever were before them. 

Thefe four Princes, who are Kings of the 
Maquas^ Garajohhore^ and the River Sachem^ are 
caird, the firftle Tee Neen Ho Ga Prow, the fe- 
cond Saga Tean ^la Prab Tort^ the third Blow o 
Oh Kaom^ the fourth Oh Nee TeathTon No Prm^ o 
with the other two they mention in their Speech 
to her Majefty, are the fix who poflefs all the 
Nations on the North-V^efl fide of the Iroquois^ 
up to the Lake Erie^ and that great one of the 
Hurom-^ and as we have heard it from their 
own Mouths, thefe fix are in a ftrid Alliance 
iagainft the French, ai^d at the fame Time are 

A 2 aU 

3.11 unanimous to requeft the AiTiilance of the 
Queen of Great Br'itaw^ to drive the French out 
irom among them. This is the great Motive • 
of their coming here, where they arrived the 
Beginning of April laft, being conducted over 
Sea by Colonel NicholfoTt^ late Governor of Ma* 
rylarJ'^ and on Wednefday the 19th of April they 
had an Audience of her facred Majefty, being 
introchic'd with the ufual Ceremonies due to 
foi'-ereign Heads, and their EmbsfTadors, to 
whom tl:ey reprefented their Condition, and 
the Errand of their long and hazardous Jour- 
ney, by a Speech, that even in the Tranflati- 
on carries along with it fomething of natural 
Eloquence and Simplicity, peculiar to that Sort 
of People, who, tho' unpolifh'd by Art and 
Letters, have a large Share of good Senfe and 
natural Reafon. 

The Speecli, as deliver'd by an Interpreter to 
her Britamlch Majefty, follows. 

Great ^jee^f, 
^ WT *^^^^ undertaken a long and tedious 
' VV Voyage, which none of our Predecef- 
^ fors could ever be prevaiPd upon to undertake. 

* The Motive that induc'd us, was, that we 

* might fee our Great ^icev^ and relate to her 
' thofe Things we thought abfolutely necefTary 
f for the Good of her, and us her Allies, on the 

* other fide of the great Water. 

^ We doubt not but ourGfr^^t ^leen has been 

* acquainted with our long and tedious War, in 

* Conjundion with her Children (meaning Stib- 
*je&s) againft her Enemies the French ^ and that 

* we have been as a (Iron g Wall for their Secu- 
' rity, even to the L.ofs of our beft Men. Th^ 

* Truth 

Truth of which our Brother ^tede)\ Colonel 
Schuyler ^^nd Artadagarjaux ^Colonel Nicholjon^ra^n 
teftify^they having all ourPropofals in Writ in^^, 
' We were mightily rejoyc'd, when we heard 
by Jnadtxgarjaiipc^ that our Great ^iec7i had re- 
ftlv'd to fend an Army to reduce Canada •, from 
wliofe Mouth we readily embrac'd our Great 
^16671 s Inftrudions : And in Token of our 
Friendiliip, we hung up the Kettle^ and took 
up the "^ Hatchet^ and with one ^ j Method 
Confent join'd our Brother^wt^i^r, j^^^v mongft 
Colonel Schuyler^ and Jjmdagar- 'em in Decla- 
y^n;c,Colonel NicholJ'on, in making rations of IKar, 
Prepaarations on this Side the Lake, by building 
Forts,Store-hoiifes,Canows,and Battows^ whillt 
Anadiafia^ Colonel Vetch ^ at the fame Time, rai- 
fed an Army at Eojlon, of which we were in- 
form'd by our EmbaiTadors, whom we fent thi- 
. ther for that Purpofe, We waited long in Expe- 
ctation of the Fleet from Evglarid, to join Anadh 
a/<3r, Colonel Vetch^ to go againlt ^i/t^Z'^cZiby Sea, 
whilfl Anadagarjaux^^ieder^^nd we went to Mont- 
Royal by Land ^ but at I aft we were told, that 
our Great ^leen^ by fome important Affair, was 
prevented in her Defign for that Seafon. This 
made us eztreamly forrowful, left the French^ 
who hitherto had dreaded us, ihould now 
think us unable to make War againft them. 
The Redudtion of Canada is of fuch Weighty 
that after the effeding thereof, we Ihould have 
free Hunting^ and a great Trade f Being tU 
with our Great ^leen^s Children : Money of thw 
And as a Token of the Sincerity ^^""^^A ^\^ 
01 tneli3^Kations, \veaohere, m ^^^ of the 
the Names of all,prefent our Great Shells of a cer^ 
^leenyyith tb^fe Bejti pf t ^(^njpiim, ^*^?>^ f'A' 

' We need not urge to our Great ^letn more 
^ than the Neceillty we really labour under o- 
' bliges us, that in Cafe our Great ^een Ihould 

* not be mindful of us, we muft with our Fa- 

* milies for fake our Country, and feek other 
' Habitations, or ftand neuter ^ either of which 
^ will be much againft our Inclinations. 

^ Since we have been in Alliance with our 

* Great ^eens Children, we have bad fome 
' Knowledge of the Saviour of the World, and 

* have often been importuned by the French^ 
^ both by the Infinuations of their Priefls, and 
' by Prefents, to come over to their Intereft 5 

* but have always efteem'd them Men of Falfe^ 
^ hood. But if our Great ^icen will be pleas'd 
' to fend over fome Perfons to inftrudt us, they 

* fhall find a moft hearty Welcome. 

' We now elofe all with Hopes of our Great 
^ ^leens Favour, and leave it to her moft gra- 
^ cious Confideration. 

After their Audience, they were conduced 
fcack again to their Apartments in her Maje- 
fty's Coach, attended with Colonel IS^kholfon^ 
and feveral Merchants belonging to that Part of 
jimcrka. As to the Perfons of thefe Princes, 
they are well form'd, being of a Stature nei- 
ther too high nor too low, but all within an 
Inch or two of fix Foot 5 their Habits are ro- 
buft, and their Limbs mufcular and well-ftiap'd ; 
they are of brown Complexions, their Hair 
black and long, their Vifages are very awful 
and majeftick, and their Features regular e^ 
BOUgh, though fomething of the auftere and 
fallen ^ and the Marks with which they disfi^ 
gure their Faces, do not feem to carry fo 


^ 7 /. 
much Terror as Regard with them. The Gar- 
ments they wear, are black Wallcoats, Breeches, 
and Stockings, with yellow Slippers, and a 
loofe fcarlet Mantle calt over them, bound with 
a Gold Galloon ^ their Hair ty'd fiiort up, and 
a Cap fomething of the Nature of a Turbant 
upon their Heads. They are generally affable 
to all that come to fee them, and will not re- 
fiife a Glafs of Brandy or ftrong Liquors from 
any Hands that offer it. They never iit on 
Chairs or Benches, but on their Heels, which 
makes their Knees, when they ftand upright, 
hag out before. They feed heartily, and love 
our Eitglijh Beef before all other Vi6tuais that are 
provided for 'em .^ of which they have Variety 
at the Charge of the Publick, with the beft of 
Wines •, but they feem to relifli our fine pale 
Ales before the bell Frejtch Wines from Biirgim- 
dy or Champaign, According to the Cuftom of 
their Country, thefe Princes do not know what 
it is to cocker and make much of themfelves ; nor 
are they fubjed to thofe Indifpolitions our Lux- 
ury brings upon us, tho' now among us they 
live voluptuoully. They are not afflided with 
Gout, Dropfy, or Gravel ^ and notwithftand- 
ing their Intemperance here,, they are not f eve- 
rilh upon awy Occaflon, or troubl'd with Lois 
of Appetite 5 for in their own Country they 
are addidled to Gormandizing, infomuch that 
they rife in the "Night to eat ^ if by good Luck 
they have Meat by them, they fall to it 
without getting up. It is reported, that 
thefe four Princes have been fo inur'd to Hun- 
ting, and other Sports, that they run as fwift 
as a Deer, and hold it a long Timej fo that 
*hey propofe to run down a Buck or Stag be- 

fore the Qu^^n, when {he pleafes to fee them^ 
in any of her Parks or Cliaces. They are to 
tire down the Deer, and catch him without 
Gun, Spear, Launce, or any other Weapon. 


A Defcriptlon of the Coimtry of Canada. 

TH E Spaniards were the firft who difcover'd 
Canada:^ but at their iirft Arrival, having 
found nothing coniiderable in it, they aban- 
don'd the Country, and call'dit ilCapo di Na- 
da^ that is, a Cape of nothing. Hence, by Cor- 
ruption, fprung the Word Canada \ which is 
now us'd in ail Maps. Great Part of this 
Country is now term'd, from having been more 
fully difcover'd by the French^ New France ^ but 
Canada^ in the general Extent of it, contains 
many vaft Nations and Kingdoms ^ but thefe I 
(hall defcribe here, are the two Maqiia\ and the 
Kingdoms of the River Sachem and Ganajohhore^ 
feated betwixt the Lake of ffi/ro;;s on one fide, 
W'hghna^ Carolina, New Ejiglajid^ and Nen? France 
on the others. The River Canada runs quite 
through the Country, which bears between 
forty two and fifty five Degrees of Noithern 
Latitude. This River is extraordinary full of 
Fiih, among which there is one Sort more re- 
markable than the reft, called by the Inhabi- 
tants Cadhothins^ having Heads refenibling the 
Heads of Hafes, and Bodies as white as Snow. 
They are taken for the moft part before the 
Ifle call'd. The Ip of Hares. The Country on 
both Sides the River is pleafant, and indiffe- 

rently fertile, efpecially towards ihtSotith-Wefi^ 
where, upwards from the River, the Ground 
rifes into many little Hills, invefted moft of 
them with Vines ^ with which, and feveral o- 
ther Sorts of Trees, this Country abounds, be- 
ing well water'd with a great many le/Ter Streams, 
all of them falling into the River Canada, The 
Winter is here very long, and fo much the 
more fevere, by Reafon of a cold North Weft 
Wind, which blows moft part of the Winter 
Seafon, and brings with it fo thick a Snow, 
that it continues upon the Ground moft com- 
monly 'till after May» This Country is for the 
moft part Woody, but in the Champaign Parts 
thereof very fruitful of Corn, and all Sorts of 
Grain, efpecially Pulfe. It hath alfo Fifh, 
Fowl, wild Deer, Bears, Martins, and Fcxes 
in abundance^ and of Hares fuch Plenty, that 
fome Parts of it are call'd by the French the 
Land of Hares. The moft peculiar Commodi- 
ty belonging to this Country, is a Kind of Shell- 
Fijli, caird th3 Efurgmiy, extraordinary white, 
and of fingular Virtue for flenching of Blood 5 
for which End they make Bracelets of them, 
not only for their own Ufe, but to vend to 0- 

On a Branch of the River Canada, is the Lake 
de Champlain^ grown round about with Chefnut- 
Trees, in which breeds the ftrange Fifh call'd 
Chaoiifaroit, generally ten Foot long, with Heads 
like Sharks, and two Rows of Teeth in their 
Mouths, their Skins full of ftrcng Scales, which 
are fufiicient Shields againft Swords and Lan- 
ces. They are great Devourers of other Fifh 
and Fowl, which they take after this Manner, 
viz, They fvvim amonsft ReedsorCanes, and lie 
^ ^ B ftill 

dill with their Mouths open, which the Birds 
fitting upon, are immediately fwallow'd. 

The Natives of this Country anoint their Bo» 
dies with Oil, or Bear's Greafe. In the Sum- 
mer, they go naked, and in Winter mantle 
themfelves in Fur, iffc. Their Warlike Ac- 
coutrements are Darts, Clubs, Shields, Guns, 
asd Spears now, and their Diet Indiaii Corn, 
frefhand fait Fifh, Venifon, Buffalo's, and Bea- 
ver-Flefli, wiping their Hands or Fingers, when 
greafy, on their Heads. The Indlcms are in- 
conftant in their Tempers, crafty, timorous, 
but quick of Apprehenfion, and very ingenious 
in their Way-, they were more barbarous and 
cruel formerly, 'till acquainted with the Euro- 
peansj and were great Eaters of human Flefh, 
as formerly the Heathen IriJIj were. Their Hou- 
fes, which they call Wigwams^ are built with 
Poles pitch'd into the Ground, both round and 
fquare, leaving a Hole for the Smoke, covering 
the reft with Barks of Trees : They line the In- 
fide of their Wigwayns with Mats made with 
Ruihes, painted with feveral Colours •, one good 
Poft they fet up in the Middle, which reaches 
to the Hole in the Top, with a Staff a crofs, 
whereon they hang their Kettle ^ beneath they 
fet a broad Stone for a Back, which keeps the 
Pofl from burnings round by the Walls they 
fpread their Mats and Skins, where the Merj 
fleep while the Women drefs the Victuals ^ they 
have generally two Doors, one to the South ^ and 
the other to the North, and as the Wind fits 
they clofe up one Door with Bark, and hang a 
Deer-lkin before the other. Towns they have 
none, but what belong totlie Ejiropea7isy but 
foinetimes you may fee a hundred or two of 


Wigwams built together, where the hdtam will 
live while Provifions are plentiful, and then 
they remove to another Place, as Convenience 
fuits : They love to be near the Sea, or Lakes 
and Rivers in Spring and Summer, but in 
Winter go up into the Woody Parts of the 
Country, both for Shelter, and the Conveniency 
of Hunting. 

They have two or three Wives, according to 
their Ability and Strength of Body, and their 
Women have the eafieft Labour in Child-bed^ 
of any in the World ^ for when their Time is 
come, they go out alone, carrying a Board 
with them two Foot long, and a Foot and half 
broad, full of Holes on each fide, having a 
Foot beneath, and on the Top a broad Strap of 
Leather, which they put over their Forehead, 
the Board hanging at their Back ^ when they 
•come to 2 convenient Bufh or Tree, they lay 
themfelves down, and are deliver'd inftantly, 
without fo much as a Groan. They wrap the 
young Child up in a Beaver's Skin, with his 
Heels clofe to his Buttocks, and lace him down 
to the Board on his Back, his Knees refting on 
the Foot beneath -, then putting the Strap of 
Leather upon their Forehead, v/ith the Infant 
hanging on their Backs, Home they trudge, and 
carry it to the Father, who takes very little Re- 
gard of his Pofterity, but when they are able 
to do him Service, 


»3 > fcj-zw^^VJii^j 


gfyOftle Relipon of the Indians of Canada, ifc, 

TO give yoiTa clearer Idea of thefe People, 
I fliall relate to you fome ftrange Things 
and Opinions they maintain in Religion, as 
well as in their Manner of Living The great- 
eft part of 'em have generally a Notion of fome 
fort of Creation of the World ^ they fay Hea- 
ven, Earth, and Mankind, were made by a 
Woman, and that {he and her Son govern the' 
World 5 and for this Reafon, perhaps, it is that 
they reckon their Genealogies by Women. 
They fay farther, That the Son is the Author 
of all good Things, and the Woman of all evil ^ 
that both of them enjoy perfect Felicity. The 
Woman, they fay, fell out of Heaven big with 
Child, and lighted upon the Back of aTortoife, 
who fav'd her from drowning. Other Savages 
upon the fame Continent, are of Opinion, that 
a certain Spirit, calFd Otko7t by the Iroquois^- 
and Jtahaiita by others at the Mouth of the 
K'wei St.LawreTice^ is the Creator of thelV'orld, 
and that one Mejfon repaired it after the Deluge. 
They fay, that this Mejfon or Otkoji being one 
Day a hunting, his Dogs loft themfelves in a 
great Lake, which thereupon overflowing, co- 
verVi the whole Earth in a Ihort Time, apd 
fwallow'd up the World. They add, that this 
Mejfon OT Otkon gathered a little Earth together 
by the Help of fome Animals, and made ufe of 
this Earth to repair the World again. They 
think the Europeans inhabit another World dif- 
ferent from theirs 5 and when we go about to 


undeceive them, and teach 'em truly how the 
Univerfe was created, they fay, all that may 
be true enough of our World, but theirs is quite 
another Thing j nay, they often a& us whetjier 
we have a Sun and Moon in Europe^ as well as 

There are another fort of them, who Iiv^e 
near the Mouth of St. Lmvrejice^ that tell us a 
very odd Story, much like the former ^ That a 
Woman came down from Heaven, and hover 'd 
a while in the Air, becaufe ihe could find no 
Place to fet her Foot upon : The Filh of the 
Sea, compailionatingher, held a Council to de- 
termine v/ho fhould receive her. The Tortoife 
ofFer'd himfelf, and prefented his Back above 
Water *, the Woman placed her felf upon it, and 
ftay'd there : In Time the Filth of the Sea ga* 
thering and fettling about the Tortoife by little 
and little, form'd a great Extent of Land, which 
at prefent is that we call Jmerica, 

Now, lay they, this fame Waman being un* 
eafy at her living folitar3r, and troubled to have 
no Body to pafs the Time with more agreeably 
than Ihe did, there defended from on High a 
Spirit, who found her fallen afleep with Melan^ 
choly ; he approached her unperceiv'd , and 
from that Conjundion came forth two Sons out 
of h^r Side : Thefe two Children could never a- 
gree together after they were grown up ♦, one 
was a better Hunter than t'other, and every Day 
there was fome fcuffling between 'em. At 
length their Animofities grew to that Extremi- 
ty, that they could not endure one another 5, 
one of 'ejTi efpecially was of a very violent Tem-^ 
per, and had a mortal Hatred for his Brother, 
who w^s better humonv'd. He at laft, unable 


any longer to fubmit to the rude Behaviour and 
ill Treatment of his Brother, refolv'd to fepa- 
rate himfelf,and fo flew up into Heaven -, whence, 
to denote his juft Refentnient,he rattles his Thun- 
der, from Time to Time, over his unhappy Bro- 
ther's Head. Sometime after the Spirit came 
down again to the Woman, and then file brought 
forth a Daughter, fromv/hom, fay they, is de- 
fcended that numerous People who now take up 
one of thelargeft Parts of the Univerfe. 

""Tis a lamentable Thing to confider what wild 
Chimeras the Devil puts into thefe Peoples Heads. 
They hold, that the Soul does not leave the Bo- 
dy as foon as it dies ; and therefore take Care to 
lay by the Body a Bow and Arrows, or a Gun, 
with Corn and fat Meat to fubfift the Dead 'till 
they reach the Country of Souls. And becaufe 
they think alifenfible Things have Souls, they% 
reckon, that after Death Men hunt the Souls of 
Beavers, Elks, Foxes, Otters, and other Ani- 
mals ; and imagine, that the Souls walk vifibly 
for feme Time in the Villages, and partake of 
their Feafts and Revels •, therefore they always 
fct afide a Portion for them^ and tho' they have 
no true Notions of a Deity by the Light of Na- 
ture, yet they believe another Life in which they 
hope to enjoy the fame Delights that they are 
pleas'd with here. 

Some part of thefe People feem to beliei-e an 
univerfal Spirit that governs all *, they imagine, 
after a Falhion, that there's a Spirit in every 
Thing, and they addrefs themfelves fo fome- 
times, and beg fomething of Trees, Stones, and 
other inanimate Things. Few of thefe profefs 
their Belief of a Deity out of any Refped to 
Religion j they talk of it commonly as a Thing 


they were prepoffefs'd with, or irolickfomelr, 
not regarding any Thing they fay themfelves 
any otherwife than as a Kind of Fable. Their 
Dreams are to "em infiead of Prophecy, in- 
fpiration , Laws , Commandments., ' and 
Rules in all their Enterprizes in War, Peace, 
Commerce, and Huntings they regard em as 
Oracles. The Opinion they hax^e of their Dreams, 
draws 'em into a Kind of Neceihty to bernW by 
'em^^ for they think 'tis an nniverfal Spirit that 
mfpires 'em by Dreams, and advifeth ^emwhat 
to do ^ fo that they have i:omQ among 'em who 
undertake to interpret Dreams. 

There's no Nation but what have their Jhf- 
lers which fome count Sorcerers ^ but tisnot 
likely that they are under any Covenant, or 
hold Communication with the Devil. Thefe 
Impoftors would be counted Prophets, whofore- 
tel Things to come^ they would be look 'd uDon 
as havmg almoft an infinite Power ^ they boaft, 
that they make Rain or fair Weather, Calms and' 
Storms,FruitfulnefsorBarrennefs of the Ground, 
Huntmglucky or unlucky ^ they ferve forPhy-' 
ficians too, and frequently apply fuch Reme- 
dies as have no Manner of Yirtue to cure. No- 
thing can be imagin^d more horrible, than the 
Cries and Tellings, and the firange Contorilons 
oi thefe Rafcals,when they fall to jugling or con- 
juring ^ at the fame Time they do it very clever- 
ly. ^ They never cure any one, nor predld any 
Thing that falls out, but purely by Chance, yet 
they have a thoufand Fetches to bubble the poor 
People, when the Accident does not anfwer their 
Predictions^ for they are both Prophets and 
Qiiacks. Thefe blind Wretches are v/edded to 
Tn^'^nj other Superltitions, which the Devil makes 

Ufe of to delude them. An Euglif) Commander 
that was taken Prifoner by the Natives, made 
this Obfervation of their magical Rites : Three 
or four Days after he was feiz'd, feven of their 
Priefts, -in the Houfe where he lay, each with a 
Rattle, began in the Morning to fing about a 
Fire which was encompafs'd wkh a Circle of 
Meal ^ at the End of every Song, they laid down 
two or three Grains of Wheat, then the Priett 
appear'd in a great Skin, with his Head hung 
round with Skins of Weafels, and other Vermin, 
and a Coronet of Feathers, painted as ugly as 
the DcvW •, at the End of every Song he us'd 
ftrange Gefrud'es, throwing great Cakes of Deer- 
Suet and Tobacco into the Fire^ thefe howling 
Devotions continued three Days. This was to 
know whether any more E7igI?JI) fliould arrive,^ 
and v/hat they intended to do in that Country. 

When they defign to make War, theyconfult 
their Prieiis and Conjurers, and adore all Things 
that may hurt 'em, as Fire, Water, Lightning, 
Thunder, Guns, MufKets, andHorfes, nay, fome 
of Vm once feeing an EvgliJI) Boar, were ft ruck 
Vv'ithfnch extream Terror, becaufe hebrifledup 
his Hair, and gnTliM his Teeth, that they vvTre 
{ov worihipping him^ believing him to be the 
God of Swine. 

The great Fault of thefc* People in Matter?, of 
Religion, proceeds chieHr from their Carelef- 
nefs and Negled to be wtil inflruded ^ for th^y 
are* very lHZ3'',and hate to take Pains ^ for when 
they are taught their Prayers, they repeat Vm 
like Songs, without any Diliindiion •, thofe that 
have been catcchiz'd a long Tinie, are very wa- 
vering, except fonifv few ^ they renounce all, re- 
turn into their Woods^ and take up their old Su- 


perftitions, upon the leaft Crotchet that comes 
into their Heads ^ and this has been expcri- 
enc'd by thofe who have been taken from them 
young, and educated with Care to the full 
State of Manhood with all Sorts of Learnings 
yet after all this, fome of thofe have returned 
to their favage Cuftoms, and renoun^c'd l^oth 
their Faith and their Manners. ^^ ^ ' 

Another Hinderance to the Chriftian Reli- 
gion, lies in the Cuftom of thefe Natix^es, which 
would be a very good one here, that is, they lov'e 
not to contradict any Man ^ they think every 
one ought to be left to their own Opinion, with- 
out being thwarted 5 they believe, or feem to 
believe all that is faid to them, but 'tis theic 
Indifference for all Sorts of Opinions, efpecial- 
ly Matters of Religion, which they never 
trouble themfelves about. Another Thing is, 
they are brutal in all their Inclinations, natu- 
rally Gluttons, and know no other Happineft 
in this Life, but the Pleafure of Eating and 
Drinking. This is remarkable in their Eyes, 
a^d their Diverfions, which are always begun 
and ended with Feafting. 

As to the Sentiments' thefe People have of 
Heaven and Earth, when they are afk'd, 
Tf^ho is he that made them ? Some of their more 
ancient and able Men anfwer, That as to the 
Heavens, they know not who made them: 
If you have been there ^ (ay they, you imft hiovf 
fomething of the Matter, It's a fooliji) ^lefimty 
fay they, to ajk what we think of a Place fo high 
above our Heads : How would you have us to /peak of 
a Place that no Body ever faw ? But^ fay they, 
can you Jljow by the Scripture^ of which you fpeaky 
a Man that ever came from theiice^ and the Majiner 

C how 

how be inoimted tlAiher ^ When ive anflver^ 
That our Souls ^ helvg freed froi7i the BoJy, are coiiveyd 
thither to receive the Recommence of their Works by 
the Lord of Life ^ who made 'em. They anfwer, 
ICs well for thofeof your Country •, but we Ameri- 
cans, dent go to Heaven after Death ^ we only go 
to the Country of Souls, What you fay^ is good for 
thofe that dwell heyo7id the great Lake, For fo they 
call the Sea. 

As to their Opinion of the Earth, they make 
Ufe of a certain Genius, which they call Mica- 
bocke, who cover'd all the Earth with Water, 
which feems to retain feme Tradition of the 
Deluge. They believe that there are between 
Heaven and Earth certain Spirits in the Air, 
which have Power to foretel future Things i and 
others that are excellent Phyficians for all Sorts 
of Maladies. This makes 'em very fuperfii- 
tious, and confult Oracles with great Exadnefs. 



The Manner of Feajling among the Canadans, 

THEY have Feafts at Parting from one a- 
nother ^ Feafts of Thanks, War, Peace, 
Death, Marriage, and Health. They conti- 
nue revelling Night and Day, particularly 
when they hold thofe Feafts which they call 
E^t'up-all:, for then tliey don't permit anyone 
to quit the Company 'till all be eaten up -, and 
if a Perfon is not able to fluff any longer, he is 
oblig'd to hire another in bis Place. They 
have other Feafts for the Recovery of the Sick, 
and fome ordinary common Feafts, Formerly 


they kept wanton Feftivals, where the Men and 
Women iningrd together promifcuoufiy, and 
play'd moft abominable lewd Pranks ., but if 
they make fuch Enterjtaininent now-a-days, 
'tis very rarely, and when they are at a great 
Diftance froni the Europea7Js, When they un- 
dertake a War, 'tis commonly to recover Sa- 
tisfadion for fome Affront or Injury. Some- 
times they enter into War, becaufe others jeer 
'em. lou are a Coward^ fay they, yoii 7iever were 
m a Battle ^ you have kiUd no Body )et. Then aye 
they rouz'd by Honour, and after they h^Ve 
kiirdfomeFailow-Deer, makeaFeaft. and ex- 
hort their Neighbours to go along with 'em. 
When they golingly, they make no Feafts, but 
if they would have Companions, they go thro* 
all the Villages to invite the young Men, who 
take the Platters of Wood, or Bark of Birch, 
and then they rendezvous ^t the Wigwam^ or Ca- 
bin of him that invited them, which they 
commonly enter finging boafting Songs, as, / 
am going to War^ I will revenge the Death of 
fuch a Khfrnan ^ 17/ Jlay avd bmn^ and brivg «- 
way Slmjes -, / will eat Meit^ and fuch like Ei- 
preffions. When the Crew are got together^ 
they fill the Kettles of thofe that have any, or 
elfe their Pottingers of Wood or Bark 5 and thei> 
they fit down to eat, while the Matter of the 
Feaft fings without Intermiffion. The Company 
Xpeak not one Word, but eat up all they ha'i^e 
given them, in profound Silence, except one df" 
other of 'em between whiles, that applauds hirn 
that makes the Fealt. Wh&n the Orator has 
done, the Matter fays to 'em, All is well. III 
march to Morrow ^ or within two or three Pay si ac- 
cording HG he hath pjfojedted. 

C ^ CHAP. 

C H A P. IV. 
Of their Marriages: 

MArriageis not a civil Contradi among thefe 
People : The Man and Woman don t in- 
tend to bind themCrlves together as long as they 
live ^ for they live together no longer than they 
agree together, and love one another. As foori 
as they are difcontented with each other, they 
fay, My Wife is imeafy to me^ and I to her 5 fiell 
agke well enough with fuch a one who is weary of hit 
Wife ^ there's no Eeafon why we four flmdd live un- 
quietly all our Days, So, without more ado, without 
any Clamour or Noife, they feparate, and re- 
main perfedly indifferent for each other. 

They fometimes marry their Daughter sat nine 
or ten Years old, not that the young Couple 
come together fo foon, their Age is too green for , 
that, but the Fathers exped: to make fome Ad- 
Y^ntages by the Son-in-Law 5 for when they re- 
turn from hunting, the GirPs Father has the Dif- 
pofal of the Skins and Flefli they have tsken^ but 
at the (am.e Time the Girl is oblig'd to bring the 
Sagamite^ or Milk thicken'd with Indian Corn, 
and the Meat provided for her Husband's eating, 
tho' (he do not yet cohabit with him ^ fometimes 
."'tis five or fix Years before they confummate. 

Their Weddings are performed without Cere- 
iiiony ^ the Match is firft made with Money, 
which being agreed on^ and given to the Woman, 
ajiakes a Confummation *, after which, he keeps 
hex during Pleafure, and upon the leaft Diflike 
turns her away. An Indian may have two, three, 
or ipore Wives, if he pleafe ^ but it is not now fo 
much us'd as before the Europeans came^ they be- 
^laHa ins 

ing inclined to imitate Things both good and 
bad. Any Maid before fhe is marry 'd, lies with 
whom (he pleafes for Money or Cloths, without 
Scandal, it being not only cuftomary, but law- 
ful. They often marry clandeltinely, and there 
goes but one Word to a Bargain. An unmarry 'd 
Man goes to a Maid, as they call 'em, without 
more Courtfhip than telling her, if fhe will go 
with him, fhe Ihall be his Wife. She makes no 
Reply at firft, but paufes a While, holding her 
Held betwixt both her Hands, while fhe is con- 
fidering what to do -^ the Man holds his Head in 
the fame Pofture, and flands filent ^ after fhe 
has thought a little of the Matter, fhe fays, Ne- 
tho^ that is, I am content: The Man lifts up his 
Head prefently, and replies One^ that is tofay'tis 
a Match. At Night the Woman or Maid takes 
an Iron Hatchet, one of Stone, and cuts as much 
good Wood as ihe can carry, then brings it to 
the Jf^igwam^ and lays it down ^ after which, fhe 
goes in and fits down by the Man, who does not 
offer to carefs her •, when they have fat together 
long enough without fpeaking, the Husband 
fays to her Seyitacyiy^ 'tis Time to lie down, re? 

Eofe your felf •, fometime after,he comes and lays 
imfelf down by her. 'Tis very rarely feen that 
any of 'em make Love after the European Man- 
ner, courting, dallying, and jefting fondly and 
merrily ^ they re-enter into a rpeiprocal Kind- 
nefs with as much Eafe as they broke it off before 5 
they part very quietly, for they make no more 
Words on't than Iquitthee^ that's all. They are 
perfedly indifferent to each other afterwards 
when they meet, and take no more Notice, than 
if they had never feen one another. 

If their Wopien were capable of contradling 


Marriage, and keeping fteady in it, we might 
marry as many of 'em as we would to the Ejiro- 
peam •, but they have no Inclination to Conftan- 
cy, they cannot keep their conjugal Vows invi- 
olable, but are very ready to leave their Hus- 
bands. This is known by Experience, and their 
common Difcourfe^ for when any one of them, 
who has no Wife, pafTes through a Village, he 
hires a Woman for a Night or two, whilft he 
tarries from Home, or is hunting, or for fome 
Weeks, according to his Fancy, the Parents ne- 
ver hinder, but on the contrary make the firft 
Advances, and are overjoy'd that their Daugh- 
ters can earn fome Cloths or Skins. There are 
all Sorts of Humours reigning among 'em, asa- 
mongft the Europeam •, fome love their Wives ve- 
ry tenderly, fome flight 'em •, fome beat and nfe 
""em very hardly, but that does not laft long,be- 
caufe they turn 'em off-, nay, there are fome of 
""em that are jealous, which is very rare. Thofe 
that are good Hunters, have the Choice of the 
fineft Women, the reft have none but the home- 
iieftandthe Refufe. When they grow old, they 
feldom part with their Wives,but for fome weigh- 
ty Reafons. When they go to hunt in the Spring- 
Time, they frequently have their Wives behind 
em,tofow hdia7t Corn, &€. and then they hire 
another to go along with 'em. When they re- 
turn, they give 'em a Skin or two for their Wa- 
ges, and go back to their Wives, as tho' they 
had done no Harm •, but if the laft pleafes 'em 
beft, they take her, and turn away the firft with- 
out more ado. One Thing is very remarkable, 
and that is, the young warlike Canadam feldom 
have to do with Women 'till thirty Years of 
,Age,, becaufe, fzy they, the Commerce with Wo- 

men exhaufts their Strength,weakens their Knees, 
and renders 'em heavy in the Courfe. Thofe that 
marry under that Age,are defpis'd as effeminate 

C H A P. V. 

Of their Marnier of hiterrhtg their Dead, 

THESE People bury their Dead with the 
^ greateft Magnificence they can devife, e- 
fpecially their Relations , their Chiefs , ' or 
Heads of their Clans or Tribes ^ they put 
on their belt Attire, and paint their Faces and 
Bodies with all forts of Colours-, they put 'em 
ma fort of Coffin made of the Bark of Trees, 
and they polilh the Outfide neatly with light 
pumice Stones, and they make a Place where 
they bury 'em in the Manner of a Maufoleujn, 
fet round about with Stakes 12 or 13 Foot high! 
Thefe Monuments are fet up commonly in the 
moft eminent Place of their pillage, which is 
composed fometimes of two or three hundred Ca- 
bins. They fend every Year folemn Embaflles 
to their neighbouring Nations, to foleinnize the 
Feaft of the Dead. All thofe of this Part of A- 
merica fpare nothing to honour their dead Friends 
and Relations whom they go to lament. 

They have particular Ceremonies for th« 
Children of their deceas'd Friends. When they 
defign to burn thefe little Ones, as foon as they 
are dead, they wrap their Bodies in a white 
painted Skin in the Prefence of their Parents, 
printed with many Colours ^ after they carry 
it upon a kind of Sledge, and fo carry it to be 
bury'd, 'Tis to be admix 'd how nealty thefe 


( 24 ; 

Savages lay out their dead Corps, efpecially 
grown Men, which they difpofe upon fine Mats, 
and put them in the Pofture of Warriors, with 
Bows and Arrows, or elfe a Gun, Powder, and 
Ball, with a iPair of Tongs, a Hatchet, Neck- 
laces, a Pipe, fonie Tobacco, and a Pot full cf 
Sagamhe^ or Pottage of Indian Corn with fome 
fat Meat. 

A favage Woman being at the hft Gafp,cry'd 
out that Ihe would not be baptized. For the Sa- 
vages that die ChriJliartSj faid fhe, are burnd in 
the Coujitry of Souls by the Europeans. They fay 
we baptize them only to make them our Slaves 
in the other World. They often afk if there 
be good Hunting in that Country where the 
Chriliians go after Death-, when they are an- 
fvv^er'd, that they live there v/ithout Hunting, 
becaufe they neither eat nor drink ^ Jfe wiU 
. fwt go thither theyi^ fay they, becaufe we unifl 
eat. If we reply that they will have no Need 
of Food, they clap their Hands upon their 
Mouths in iign of Admiration, Tou are a great 
Lyar, cajt any one live without eatijig ? A Savage 
one Day told this Story ^ One of our Men^ fays 
he, heiitg dead^ aJid come to the Coinitry of Souls, 
found there firft of all fever al Europeans, who ca- 
refs\i him^ and viade viitch of Imn -^ ajter he came to 
the Place where his Country-rnen were^ who likewifs 
receivd him very kindly : There were FeaJIs there e- 
v:ry Day J to which the Europeans ^r^ oftcji invited ^ 
jhr there are neither ^larrels nor War. Jfter this 
old MlW had take}! a full View of the Country^ here- 
twnd Hoine, and recounted all his Advejitures to 
tixfe of his Nation. We aflfd him if he believ'd 
the Story } He faid, No^ their Ancejlcrs related 
it. but they 'might lie. 



Of the Remedies they admmfter to the Sick, 

\A7 Hell the Savages are weary or tir'd, they 
go into a Stove to recruit the Strength of 
their Limbs •, or if they have a Pain in their 
Thighs or Legs, they take a Knife, or a Ston^ 
that will cut, and make a fort of a Scarification 
itpon the Part that is griev'd, while the Blood 
runs then they fcrape it off with their Knives 
''till it has done running, and then rub the Wound 
with Bears or Deers Greefe : This is a ibirQ' 
reign Remedy, and they ufe the fame whert 
they have a Pain in the Head, or Arms. T6 
cure Tertian or ^tartan Jgttes^ they Gompofe a 
Medicine of a certain Bark, which they boil, 
and give to the fick Perfcn to fwallow after his 

They have fdme Knowledge in Herbs arid 
Roots^ with which they cure feveral Diftem- 
pers. They have infallible Remedies ^gainft 
the Poifon of Toads ^ Rattle-Snakes^ &c. but none 
againft Small-Fox^ as we have. There are 
Monntebanh^ or ^acks^ among 'eiii : Thefe are 
Ibme old Savages^ who live at othe Peoples Coft 
by counterfeiring themfelves Phyjicians^ after a 
fuperftitious M.^nner; They make no Ufe of 
Medicines •, but when they are caiFd to a 
fick Perfon, they make themfelves courted, 
as tho' they cou'd do fomething extraordi- 
nary j at laft, after much JEntreaty the Jugler 
come.^, he Approaches the fick Perfon, feels his 
Body alloverj md attar he has well handled, and 

P coa- 

coniiaer a ir, ne tells him there^s a Charm or Spell, 
in fuch a Part in the Head, Leg or Stomach, or 
where he thinks fit, he adds that he muft remove 
this fame Charm, and that it can't be done, but 
with a great deal of Difficulty, and 'tis neceflary 
to do a great many Things before he can fucceed 
in it : This Charm h very daytgerons^ fays he, hut 
it mufi he fetch" d, out, cofl what it will The fick 
Perfon's Friends, who blindly believe all the 
^ack tells 'em, make anfwer, Tchagon, Tcha^ 
gon '^^ Courage, Courage:^ do what you ca7t :^ /pare 
mthivg that you .know will do him good. Then 
the Jvgler fets himfelf down very gravely, and 
confiders fometime what Medicine ^ to make life 
of \ then by and by he rifes up, as out of a 
profound Sleep, and cries, Itfiallbe done: Go 
and make a Feaft, and he merry. Which Saying 
often occafions many a drunken Bout. While 
they are all taken up in this Manner the old 
Jugler keeps clofe to the fick Perfon, whom he 
torments by holding his or her Feet and Legs, 
and gripes 'em hard in thQ Part where the pre- 
tended Charm lies ^ he makes 'em fufFer incre- 
dible Pain, enough to kill *em ^ and often 
makes the Blood ftart out at the End of their 
Fingers or Toes. At length, after he has done 
all this, he (hews a Piece of Skin, a Lock of 
Womans Hair, or fome fuch Things and tells 
'em, 'tis the Charm which he has drawn out of 
the fick Body ^ when at the bottom 'tis all a. 
Piece of Roguery, 

C H AP» 


Of their Gcmjlitutioft, Tem2er, and Manners. 


lENERALLY fpetking, they are very 
_ [ Robuft : The Men, Women, and Children 
are of an extraordinary vigorous Conftitution, 
therefore they are very rarely troubled with 
Diftempers : Thej are very greedy of Viduals, 
yet they can undergo (uch long Abftinences as 
wou'd doubtlefs be intolerable to the Europeans : 
Sometimes they FajS: two or three Days together, 
when there's a neceffity for it, and this without 
difcontinuxng their Bufinels, whether it be War^ 
Hmtifig^ or FiJInvg : The Children of the Natives 
are fo hardened Bgainft Cold, that in the depth 
of Jfint&r they run ftark Naked thro' the Snow, 
and tumble about in it as Hogs wallofw in the 
Dirt in Summer Time: When the Air is filFd 
with Biting-Flies, they don't feel their Stinging, 
When the Men area Hunting, efpecially in the 
Spring-time, they are almoft continually in the 
Water, notwithftanding it be very cold •, and yet 
they come out of it frelh and gay, and return to 
their Cabins without complaining. When they 
go to War, they fometimes poft themfeh^es be- 
hind a Tree, three or four Days together, eating 
a very inconfiderable Quantity of Viduals all 
that while ^ and thus they lie hid in Ambu(|i, 
waiting to ftrike a favourable Blow. 

The Conftitution of the Women is no lefs vi- 
gorous than that of the Men, nay they are rather 
more robuft •, the Women ferve for Porters,and are 
fo ftrong, that few Men in Europe can match 

D 2 them^ 

them, they'll carry Packs that two or three can 
hardly lift up • They ufually carry two or three 
Hundred Weight, and fet their Children a top 
of their Burden, which are not reckon'd into the 
Weight : 'Tis true they walk flowly, but they 
yievfir fail to meet at the Rendezvous of the Na- 
tion. When in War, they undertake Journeys 
of 3 or 4 Hundred Leagues, as if it were no more 
than a Kind of Walk ^ they carry no Proyifions 
along with them j they live hy Hunting, which 
they follow Daily, and take Nothing but a Knife 
with them, in which Equipage they will go a 
Thoufand Leagues. 'Tis further remarkable, 
that whilft their Women are big with Child, they 
go about and carry heavy Burdens, fow Lidian 
Corn and Gourds, and what is worthy Obferva- 
tion, their Children are very well fhap'd, that 
'tis a Rarity to fee one Crooked or Deform'd, 
they haying no Natural Faults in their Bodies. 
As to their Manners they feldom falute Stran- 
gers, or one another, but fit upon their Breeches, 
and have no Regard to thofe that come to vifit 
them : They enter into their Wigwam^ without 
fpeaking a Word, and take a Seat where they 
can, then fmoak their Pipe without faying any 
Thing, and fo go away ag^in. The Men do the 
Neceflities of Nature before all the World, with- 
the leaft Scruple, apd without Regard to any 
Man. They never waih their flatters n;iade of 
Wood or Bark, iior the Spoons : When the favage 
Women have clean'd their littlelnfants with their 
Han<}s, they wipe 'em very {lightly upon a piice 
of Baric, after which they will handle the Meat 
that they eat, feldom or n€ver waihing their 
Hands or Face. As foon as they enter into their 
.Wigwanis they fall a Smoaking,and if they %4 



aPot covered, they make no Difficulty to take ofF 
the Lid, to fee what's in it ^ they eat in the Plat- 
ter where their Dogs have eaten, without wiping 
it^ and when they eat Fat Meat they rub their 
Hands upon their Face and Hair to clean them, 
and are perpetually Belching. Thofe that have 
truck d Shirts with the Europeans^ never walh 
them, but commonly let 'em rot on their Backs ; 
They feldom cut their Nails, and as feldom wafli 
the Meat they drefs. The Women are not a- 
Iham'd to make Water before all the World, but 
they had rather go a League in the Woods than 
any Body Ihould fee them go to Stool *, when 
the Children pifs their Coverlets, they caf|: away 
the Urine with their Hands 

But iiotwithftanding, there are a great many 
Things among them very Civil and Commen- 
dable, as when any one enters into their Cabins 
when they are eating, they commonly prefent 
him with a Plateful of Meat, and they are ex- 
treamly pleas'd when all is eaten that they give, 
rather chufing to faft two Days without Vidtu- 
als, than let you go without prefenting you hear- 
tily with part of all they have. 

Some Savages will prefent us the beft Mats 
and Places, in their Wigwams, when we pay 'em 
3 Vifit : Thofe who frequent the Company of 
Eiiropeam^ falute as we do when they meet us ^ 
It's likewife the Cuftam of thefe People to return 
Prefent for Prefent. In their Feafts they often 
give to the moft confiderable among 'em, the 
whole Head of the Beaft which they have kill'd, 
or the beft Portion of what is drefs'd^ they ne- 
v'er eat on the fame Platter, unlefs it be in W-ar, 
for then they obferve no Rule. There was a 
Savage who was Qll'd Garagontic^ which is a? 


much as to fay, the Sun that moves, one Day 
made an Harangue before the Governor, and 
every Time he began a new Difcourfe, he took off 
his Cap and made a Speech like an Orator. 
Another of them feeing his little Daughter, which 
he had given to the Governour to be inftrudted, 
(aid very civilly to him, Onnontio^ for fb they 
call XhQ GovQxnowT oi Canada ^Thou art theMafter 
cfthis Girl^ order the Bufaefsfo that fie may learn 
to Write and Read well^ and when fie grows great ^ 
either fend her Home^ or take her for a Wife^ which 
Ihows thefe People look upon themfelves as much 
;is the Greatefl: Perfons in the World, 

CHAP. viir. 

Of their Habits^ or Cloathiftg. 

THE Savages of this Part of America^ ac* 
cording to the Report of their Old eft 
M»n, have always gone cover 'd, even before 
they had any Commerce with the Europeans^ 
the Men and Women cloath'd themfelves with 
drefs'd Skins •, they are now cloath'd after the 
fame Manner, but thofe that have Trade with 
us and other Europeam^ hav€ commonly a Shirt, 
a great Coat, with a Cowl to it, and a piece of 
Cloth made faft before and behind, with a Gir- 
dle which comes down to their Knees, befides 
they have Stockirvgs without Feet, and Shooes 
made of drefs'd Skins. When they return from 
Hmtivg in Spring-Time, they truck their Skins 
for Coats, Shoes and Stockings: Some wear 
Hats out of Complaifance to the Europeans: 
gome of 'em have Blankets, in which they wrap 


themfelves, holding two Corners of it in their 
Hands, when they are in their Wigwams : They 
often go quite naked, having nothing but a piece 
of Cloth, which they gird about them in Win- 
ter, 'tis faften'd about their Loins, and hangs 
down between their Thighs , as low as their 
Knees. When they go to War, or to a Feaft, they 
dawb their Faces all over with red or black, 
that their Enemies may cot perceive they turn 
pale with Fear i there are fome that rub their 
JHair with Oyl, and afterwards clap fome Down, 
or little Feathers upon their Heads ^ Sometimes 
they faften near their Ears great Plumes of Fea- 
thers ^ fome make themfelves wreaths of Flowers, 
others make 'em of Birchin-Bark, and fome of 
drefs'd Skins, that are work'd very prettily ^ then 
they look like fome of Cmfar's Soldiers, who 
Urere painted of divers Colours* 

The Northern Women, in thefe Parts, are cloa- 
thed like the Men, except they wear a piece of 
StufFmade like a Petticoat, which reaches down 
almoft to their Knees. When they go to Feafts, 
they drefs themfelves in all their beft Attire, be- 
dawb their Temples, their Cheeks, and the Tip 
of their Chin with three Sorts of Colours. Th« 
Boys go ftark naked, 'till they are capable of 
Marriage, and even when they are cloath'd, thofe 
parts which Nature forbids Men to difcover are 
always left uncover'd, at leaft if thdy have no 
Shirts. The Girls begin to put on Cloaths at 
Five or Six Years old, and then they wear a piece 
of Stuff that goes round about 'em, reaching from 
their Loins down to their Knees. Since the 
Ewopeam have convers'd among 'em, they begin 
to be afham'd of their Nakednefs, and learn to 
cover themfelves a little better than they did 
formerly. CHAP, 


Of their Games^ or Sports, 

^Viey have Games as we have, fome for Men, 
and fome for Children : The Men com- 
monly play with the Stones of certain Fruits^ 
that are red on one fide, and black on the other 5 
they put 'em into a pretty large Wooden Plat- 
ter, iiot very deep, or into a Bafon of Birchin- 
Bark, upon a Woollen Blanket, a Drefs'd Skin, 
a jfiobe of Bever, or a large Coat. They Play 
Six of Seven together ; but there are but two of 
'em can take hold of the Platter with their two 
Hands, one after another* They lift it up, 
and ftrike the bottom of the Platter againft the 
Ground, to husfle thefe iix Nuts together ^ if 
there come up five Red, or five Black, all juf d 
Side, that's one Game won ♦, for they make 
three or four Games up, more or left, according 
as they agree upon it All the Gamefters Play 
one after another : Some of 'em are fo addided 
to this Game, that they Play away all they 
have, 'till they are naked. When they are at 
Play they Bawl as loud as they can, juft as if 
the Decifion of an Empire was in agitation ; 
and all this Noife is made, as if they wou'd 
force the Chance to fall on their Side. Wheii 
they Ihake the Platter, they lay themfelves over 
the Back and Shoulders at fuch a rate, that 
they make themfelves black and blew with the 
Blows. They Play often with Straws, or 
Broom-Sprigs, half a Foot long, or tliereabouts 5 
one of them takes thein all in his Hand, and 


then without looking upon 'em, divides 'em 
into two Parts, and gives one to his Adverfary^. 
He that has the Even or the Odd Number, ac- 
cording to their Agreement, wins the Game. 
The Children like wife Play at this Game of 
Odd or Even, as our Europeans do. 

They have another Game that they are much 
plea§*d with, they call Otmon hayenti ^ but 'tis 
rather a Sort of Traffick and Barter, than a 
Game : They go into two Cabins, half into 
one, and half the other •, then comes one with 
Ibme Skins, Cloths, or what elfe they have a 
Mind to truck, and goes to the Door of one 
Cabin, and crys aloud Oimon hayenti ^ thofe 
within the Cabin make anfwer with a hollow* 
Voice, tlon^ hon^ hon^ hon^ hon^ five Times : The 
Cryer or Seller having done, throws the Goods 
into the Cabin, and returns Home. The reft 
in the other Cabin confidering the Price of the 
Goods, fends one out to know if they will take 
a Coat^ Shirt, or Pair of Shoes, in exchange for 
their Commodities : If they agree, the Ceremo- 
ny ends with Songs on all Sides* The Word 
Oimon hayenti fignifies a Bargain. The Children 
have a Game like the Europeans of Tree- Ball 5 
likewife a Game with a Ball of Rulhes, or 
Leaves of Indian Corn, which they tofs up, and 
catch upon the Point of a Stick. The Great 
People, IVIen and Women, pafs away the Win- 
ter Nights in telling Stories ovw the Fire, as 
the European Peafants do^ 

% qHAR 

V 34 ; 


Of their mahivg War ^wi Peace : T^ith their Policy 

271 both. 

THey have almoft all of them a ftrong In- 
clination to War, becaufe they are fiibjedt 
to Revenge ^ being reftlefs Day and Night 'till 
they have taken Satisfaction for an Affront of- 
fered to their Nation : Where they are not in 
Alliance, they can eafily ruin the Commerce 
of their Europea?! Neighbours, who fubfifl chiefly 
by their Traffick with them. They have con- 
fiderable Men among them, who are their Lea- 
ders and Governors; and they have thofe un- 
der their Command that will follow them any 
where, and do all they are order'd : Before 
they fet out they proxade themfelves with good 
Firelocks, wbich they get in exchange for Skins 
and Furs ^ they take Powder, Ball, Kettles, 
Hatchets, and other necelTary Implements in 
War along with 'em. Sometimes they have 
young Women and Lads that go along with 
'em ; and in this Equipage they march three or 
four hundred Leagues. 

When they come near the Place where they 
are to Fight, they march flowly, and with 
much precaution ^ they never kill Deer with 
their Fire- Arras, for fear of being difcover'd, 
but only u(e their Arrows upon that Occafion, 
which makes little Noife in Flying : They fend 
out Spfes before 'em, to give an Account, where 
it is moflr proper to begin their Attack. They 
are excellent at Surprii,e aod Ambufcade ^ and 


will He in Wait behind the Trees, as if their 
Defigns were upon fome Beaft. They are very 
Nimble and A6tive at an Onfet or Retreat ^ and 
their Patience is admirable when they find 
themfelves in clofe Covert ^ they'll wait two 
or three Days without Eating, to find a favou- 
rable Opportunity againfl: their Enemy. Tho(e 
that don t go out to Fight, are contemn'd, and 
pafs for Cowards, and Effeminate Men, except 
thofe who belong, and prefide over their Coun- 
cils at Home, which are conftantly aflembled, 
for Ordering all their Affairs, let the Bufinefs 
that is to be done be never fb fmall, or trivial, 
which renders them a very confiderable People, 
for they undertake nothing hand over head, but 
confiilt the befl: Methods to gain their Ends. 
The Old Men watch over the Publick, while 
the Young and Hale go to the Wars. If one 
complains that fome Pexfon robb'd him, they 
carefully inform themfelves who it is that com-^ 
mitted the Theft •, if they can't find him out, 
or if he is not able to make Reftitution, provi- 
ded they be fatisfy^d of the Fad, they repair 
the Lofs, by giving fome Prefent to the injur'd 
Party, to his Content. 

When they wou'd put any Body to Death for 
an enormous Crime, which they are perfwaded 
he is guilty of, they hire a Man, whom they 
make drunk with Brandy, for thefe People are 
very greedy of it, that the Kinsfolk of the Cri- 
minal may not feefc to Revenge his Death : Af- 
ter thefe drunken Men have kill'd him whom 
they judge culpable, they give this Account of 
it, Ihat he that flew him was Mad and Drunk 
when he ftruck the Blow. 

E z As 

{ 36 ; 

As to their Methods of malving Peace, that 
is always done by the Calumet^ which is the 
moft mifterioiis Thing in the World, for it is 
us'd in all their important Tranfadions ^ how- 
ever it is nothing elfe but a large Tobacco-Pipe 
made of red, black, or white Marble, the Head 
is finely polifh'd, and the Qiull, which is com- 
monly two Foot and a half long, is made of a 
pretty ftrcng Reed or Cane, adorn'd with Fea- 
thers of all Colours, interlaced with Locks of 
Womens Hair ^ they tie to it two Wings of the 
moft curious Birds they find, which makes their 
Calumet not much unlike Mercury's Wand, or 
that Staff EmbafTadors formerly did carry when 
they went to treat of Peace : They fheath that 
Reed into the Neck of Birds they call Huars^ 
which are as big as our Geefe, and fpotted with 
Black and White ^ or elfe of a fort of Ducks, 
who make their Nefts upon Trees, tho' Water 
be their ordinary Element, and whofe Feathers 
are of niany different Colours -, however, every 
Nation adorns the Calumet as they think fir, 
according to their own Genius, and the Birds 
they have in their Country, 

A Pipe, fuch as I have defcrib'd it, is a Pafs, 
and fafe Condud, among all the Allies of the 
Nations who give it ^ and in all EmbalFies, the 
Embafladors carry that Calumet^ as the Symbol 
of Peace, which is always refpeded , for they 
are univerfally Perfwaded, that a great Misfor- 
tune wou'd befal them, if they violated the 
publick Faith of the Calwnet, All their Epter- 
prizes, Declarations of War, or Conclufions of 
Peace, as well as all the reft of their Ceremo-; 
nies, are Seal'd, if I may be permitted to fay 
foj with this Calumet ^ they fiU that Pipe with 


\ ^1 J 
the beft Tobacco they have, and then prefent 
it to thofe with whom they have concluded any 
great Affair, and Smoke out of the fame after 

C H A P. XL 

Of their Maymer of Hiintivg. 

npHey obferve the Time, the Seafons, and the 
Moons of the Year very pundually, for 
the better Ordering their Hunting : They call 
their Moons, from the Name of thofe Beafts 
which at certain Seafons appear the moft. They 
call it The Mooti of Frogs ^ when the Frogs make 
their greateft Croaking ^ The Moon ofBtiUs^ when 
thofe wild Bulls appear ^ The Moon of Swallorps^ 
when thofe Birds come, and when they go. 
Thefe Barbarians reckon thus, becaufe they have 
no other Names to diftinguilh their Months by, 
as the Europeans have, They hunt the Elk and 
the Goat in all Seafons ^ but more particularly 
when there is Snow. They hunt the Jf^ild-Cat 
and the Marmofet in Winter •, the Porcupine^ the 
Cajfor and the Otter in the Springy and (bmetimes 
in Autumn, They take the Elk in a Gin by the 
Neck, and the Cafior in Traps. They kill the 
Bears with Arrows, or Shot, upon the Oaks 
when they eat the Acrons. As to the Wild- 
Cats^ they fell the Tree they are upon, and then 
the Wild' Dog falls upon them and kills them. 
The Porcupines are taken almoft in the fame 
Manner, with this only Difference, that they 
Icill them with a Hatchet or Fork when the 
Tree is falFn , for the Dogs cannot come near 


tlieiti, becaufe of their Quills, which are fhar- 
per then Awls, and by little and little pierce a 
Man's Body in an imperceptible Manner ^ and 
thefe Beafts wou'd infallibly be the Death of 
thofe Dogs, fhou'd they attack 'em. Thefe 
Beafts do not run fwift ^ a Man may eafily 
overtake them. 

In TFinter they take the Caflers under the Ice : 
They firft feek out for the Ponds where thefe 
Beafts frequent. The Cajiors (hew an admirable 
Skill and Induftry in the Building of their lit' 
tie Huts : When they change their Abode, they 
feek out fome Brook in the Woods, and run 
upwards along the fide of it, 'till they come to 
fome ffat Country, fit to make a Pond in ^ then 
after they have well viewed the Place on every 
fide, they begin to make a Dam to ftop the 
Water : They make it as ftrong as the Dam of 
any Pond in Europe^ of Wood, Earth and Mud ^ 
and fometimes fo big, that it will hold the Wa- 
ter of a Pond a quarter of a League long. 
They make their Huts about the Middle of the 
Level of the Water, with Wood, Rufhes and Mud, 
and they plaifter it all fmoothly together with 
their Tails which are longer and full as broad 
as a Mafons Trowel. Their Buildings are three 
or four Stories high, fiU'd almoft full with Mats 
of Rufhes, and in this Place the Females bring 
forth their Young ones. At the bottom of the 
Water there are PafTages higher and lower. When 
the Ponds are frozen over, they can only go 
under the Ice, and for this Reafon at the Begin- 
ning of Winter, they make a Provifion of Afpetu 
Wood, which is their ordinary Food : They keep 
it in the Water round about their Huts 5 the Sa- 
vages pierce the Ice about the Cabin with the 


Handle of a Hatchet, or a Stake-, and when they 
have made a Hole, they found the Bottom of 
the Water to find out the Cajlofs Track. When 
they have found it out, they pat in a Net a 
Fathom long, and two Sticks, of which the two 
Ends below touch the Ground, and the two 
Ends above come out at the Hole which is made 
in the Ice : They have two Cords fix'd to the 
Sticks, to draw the Net when the Cajlor is 

But to the End this fubtle Animal may not 
fee the Net, nor the Men, they ftrow upon the 
Surface of the Ice rotten Wood, Cotton, and 
fiich like Things : One Savage ftays to watch 
neaV the Net with a Hatchet to draw the Cafior 
upon the Ice when he is taken, while the refi: 
break down the Cabins or Huts with a great 
deal of Labour, they often more than a Foot 
of Wood and Earth, which they are forc'd to 
hew with a Hatchet, for its frozen as hard as 
a Stone : When that is done, t\\Qj found the 
Pond, and wherefbever they find a Hole, they 
break the Ice for fear the C&ftaft ihou'd hide 
themfelves under it ♦, fo driving them from 
Place to Place, at laft they force them into the 
Net. They labour extream hard in this Man- 
ner from Morning 'till Night, without eating 
any Thing ^ and for all that, do not take above 
three or four Cafiors. The Natives alfo take in 
the Sprifig thefe Beafts with Traps, in the fol- 
lowing Manner ; When the Ice begins to thaw 
they ohferve the Caflor^s PafTage, and fet a Trap 
there ♦, they Bait that with a Branch of the Jf 
pin-Tree^ which reaches from the Trap into the 
Water : When the Caftor finds it, he eats it even 
in the Trap, and then two great Logs of Wood 


fall Uponhim^ which kill him. They take the 
Martem almoft in the fame Manner, with this 
Difference only, that they lay no Biit for them. 
All the Southern Nations are more Superftitious 
in their Hunting than thefe Noythern People, 
who obferve little or no Ceremonies in their 
Hunting •, but when they have caught their 
Prey, they Difmember the Beaft, after which 
their Wives dry the Flefh in the Sun, and the 
Smoak of fome fmall Fires, upon v/coden Grid- 
irons. While theSeafon of Hunting lafts they on- 
ly eat the Intrails, and the worfl: Pieces of thofe 
Beafts, and carry the beft home to their Villages^ 
which are often two or three Hundred Leagues 
from the Place of Hunting* 


Of their' Manner of FiJJ)htg, 

THE Savages that dwell in thefe Parts, fifh 
in a different Manner from the Southern 
Americans^ for the Northern People catch all Sorts 
of Fifh, with Nets, Hooks, and HarpingJronSj^ 
as we do in Europe* Some have a pleafant Man- 
ner of Fiihing thus, They take a Fork of Wood 
with two Grains or Points, and fit a Gin to it 
after they put it in the Water, and when the Fifh, 
which are in greater Plenty by far, than with 
us, go to pafs through and find they are enter'd 
into the Gin, they fnap together thefe Sort of 
Nippers or Pinchers, and catch the Fifh by the 
Gills. The Magna s which belongs to the Em- 
peror of the Six Nations or Cantons, fometimes 
make life of aNet of forty or fifty Fathom long, 
which they put in a great Canow j after they 


talt It into an Oral Form in convenient Places 
of the Rivers : Their Dexterity is to be admired in 
this Affair 5 for thej take fometimes four Hun- 
dred white Fifh, befides many Stnrgeom^ which 
they draw to the Bank with Nets made of Nef^ 
ties. The Fifhery is fo great in fome of thefe 
Parts, that it is capable to fiirnifh with Filh of 
feveral Sorts the greateft Cities in Europe. It is 
not to be wondered at, for the Fifli continually 
fwim Up the River from the Sea towards the 
Spring-head to find convenient Places to fpawn 
in. The River of St. Lkwrence or Canada^ receives 
m thefe Parts an infinite Qiiantitj of frefh Wa- 
ter from the four great Lakes, the Lake Harort. 
the upper Lake, the Lake of the tUinois^ and the 
Lake Erieor of the Cat, which may properly be 
call'd little frefh Water Seas. This great De- 
Jugeof Water tumbling furioufly over the great- 
eft andmoft dreadful Heap in the World, an in- 
finite Number of Fifh take great Delight to fpawn 
here, and as it were fufFocate here, becaufe they 
cannot get over this huge Cataradl: So that the 
Quantity taken here is incredible* 

A<jentleman who was Travelling this Part, 
went to fee this Heap, which comes from a River 
m the North, and falls into a great Bafin of the 
Lake Outano, big enough to hold a Hundred 
Men of War, being there he taught the Natives 
to catch Fifh with their Hands, by caufing Trees 
to be cut down in the Spring, and to be rolFd 
to the Bank of the River, fo that he might be 
upon them without wetting himfelf 5 by the 
Alliflance of which he thrufl his Arm into the 
Water up to the Elbow, where he found a pro- 
digious Quantity of Fifh of different Species, 
ivhxch he laid hold on by the Gills, gently ftro- 

P king 

king 'em, and when he had taken Fifty or Sixty 
of 'em at a Time, he ufe to warm and refrefli 
himfelt •, after this Manner, in a (hort Time he 
would catch Filh enough to feed Fifty or Sixty 

The moft conliderable Fifliery of the Savages 
is that of Eels, which are very large of Salmay^ 
Salmofi'Tiouts^ and white Fifti. The Fifhery of 
Iroquois Jgnies which are near Nem-Tork^ is of 
Frogs, which they take, and put whole into their 
Caldrons, without fkinning them, to feafou their 
Sagamite or Iniian Pottage. The Salmon Trouts 
are taken in many other Places of the Rivers 
which fall into the Lake of Trorttenac ." There 
are fiich Qiiantities of 'em that they kill them 
with Sticks : They take the Eels in the Night 
when it's calm : Thefe come down all along the 
River St. Lawrence^ and are taken in this man- 
ner. The Savages put a large Bark of the Birch- 
Tree, and fome Earth upon the End of a ftake, 
after which they light a fort of a Flambeau which 
gives a clear Light, after that one or two of 'em 
go into a Canow with a Harping-Iron^ placed 
between the two Grains of a little Fork •, when 
they fee the Eels by the Light of the Fire, they 
ftrike a vaft Quantity of 'em, becaufe the great 
while ForpoJfes which purfiie them, make 'em fly 
towards the Banks of the River, where the Por- 
poife cannot follow, becaufe of the Ihallownefs 
of the Water. They take Salmons with harpii* 
Irons, and the White-Fifli with Nets. Thofe 
who dwell fome Hundred Leagues higher up the 
Country, are (b crafty, and have lueh quick and 
piercing Eyes, that the Fifh fwim very faft^ they 
will not fail to ftrike them with Darts a great 
Depth in the Water, which they fhoot with a 

Bow 5. 

pow'^ befides they have long Poles fliarp at one 
pnd, which they dart moft dextereufly in this 
Manner, they kill great Sturgeons and Troiits^ 
which are kvm or eight Fathom in the Water. 


Of the Uterifh of the Savages in their 
Wigwams, tS^c, 

BEfore the Europeans arrived here the Natives 
made Ufe of Pots of Earth, as fome of 'em 
do even to this Day 5 efpecially thofe that have 
no Commerce with the Enropeaits^zni can procure 
no Pans, Chaldrons or other Utenlils : Inftead 
of Hatchets and Knives they make Ufe of (harp 
ftones, which they tie with Thongs of Leather 
m the End of a cleft Stick, inftead of Awls, they 
make Ufe of a certain fharp Bow, which above 
the Heel of the Elk^ they had no Fire Arms, 
but made Ufe of Bows and Arrows. For to 
make Fire in a Manuer new and quite unknown 
to us, they make a Triangle of Cedar- wood of 
a Foot and half, in which they make fome Holes 
pf a fmall Depth, after they take a fwitch or 
little ftick of hard Wood, they twirl betweea 
both their Hands in the Hole, and by the quick 
Motion produce a kind of Duft or Meal, which 
IS converted into Fire, after they pour out this 
white Powder upon a Bimch of dried Herbs^and 
rubbing all together, and blowing upoothis Pow- 
der, which is upon the Herbs, the Fire blazes 
m a Moment. When they woq'd make Platters, 
or wooden Spopjis, or Porringers, they drill their 
WoQd with their iloae Hatchets, and hollow it 
With Fire, aad do after fcrape it, a«d polifh it 

F 2 with 

with a Bever\ Tooth. The Northern Nations, ' 
who have commonly very (harp Winters, make 
iJfe of Rackets to go over the Snow, which are 
inade of the Thongs of fkins, cut out as broad as 
little Ribbons, neater than our Temiis Rackets 
Thofe Savages which are near the Europeans^ 
have at prefent Guns, Hatchets, Caldrons, Awls, 
Knives, Tongs, and fiich like Utenfils. To 
plant their Indian Corn, they make Ufe of Pick» 
axes of Wood, for want of thofe of Iro/i ^ they 
have large Gourds, in which they put the Fat 
of Bears, Wild-Cats, ^c. There is none but 
has his Leathern Bag for his Pipe and Tobacco. 
The Women make Bags of the Rind of the Lin- 
den-Tree, or of Rulhes to put their Corn in. 
They make Thread of Nettles, and of the Bark 
of the Lime-Tree,andof certain Roots. To fbw 
their (hoes, they makeUfeofveryfmall Thongs : 
They make likewife Matts of Bun-ru(hes to He 
upon, and when they have none, they make ufe 
of the Barks of Trees. The Natives who have 
Commerce with the fi/rop^^w^, begin to make ufe 
of Iron Crooks and Pot-hooks, which they hang 
upon a ftick, which refts upon two forked flicks 
fixed in the Ground ^ but thofe that have no 
Commerce, make ufe of the Branches of Trees 
to hang their Pots upon to boil their Viduals, 



Of the Beauty ani Fertilhy of the Country -^ whb 
other remarkable Thijigs, 

I Shall here but barely Touch upon the Beau- 
ty and Fertility of this Part of America^ not 
having room in fo fhort a Trad to expatiate, 
only to let the World fee how ea fie, as well as 
advantageous, it wou'd be to Great Brhaiyt to 
eftablifli powerful Colonies there. We muft 
pnfefs that there are vaft Forefts to be rid up, 
which reach from Canada fome Thoufands of 
Miles farther 5 fo that it wou'd require a great 
deal of Time to clear the Ground. Coniide- 
rable Advantages were formerly made, and 
are fo ftill, from the Fiftiery 5 in which Traf- 
fick, in the paft Age, -a thdufand or twelve, 
hundred Veflels were employed. The great 
Bank of NewfonvJlartd^ the adjacent Banks, and 
the neighbouring Ifles have the moft Fifli in 
the World. Thefe Fiflieries wou'd be inexha^i- 
ftible Mines for the Kingdom, which cou'd not 
be taken from it, if they were (upported by 
good Colonies and Alliances^ fach as are now 
ofFer'd to this Kingdom by the Savage Kings of 
that Country. A great many VefTels might go 
every Year to fifh for Porpoife^ Whale^ and the 
Sea-ff^clf] which wou'd furnilh us with an infi- 
. hite Qjiantity of Oil for our Domeftick Manu- 
fadures^ of which, a Part might be tranfport^d 
to Foreign Countries. - ' ' ^; - 

There has not been Time enough, nor Means 
to fcarch the Country for Mines ^ but without 


doubt there are Mines of Tin, Lead, Copper,' 

and Iron in many Places, which are left for the 

Pifcorpry of future Ages. The Country, by 

reafon ^f the vaft Forefts, will furnifh all Sorts 

of Wood neceflary to work the Minerals that 

may be dug there. In many Places there is 

found a Bitftard^ and great Veins of Coal. The 

farther one advances into the Country, the 

more beautiful Forefts are found, full of Gum^ 

my Trees, fit to make Pitch for Ships j as al- 

Jo infinite Store of Trees fit for Mafts, of 

Pines, Firs, Cedars, Maples fit for all Sorts of 

Work, efpecially in the Building of Ships, 

There are in this Nation a great many Sorts 

of Merchandizes and Manufadures of all Kinds, 

.which cannot be confumed upon the Place ^ 

,but in Time this large Trad of Land belong- 

•ijng to Canada might make a prodigious Vend 

of 'em. 

It is certain, that the Trade of Furs and Skins 
in the North is of infinite Profit and Advantage. 
There are to be had Skins of Elh or Qriginaux^ 
as they are call'd in Canada of Bean ^ of the 
white Fb/^ or LytiK ; of black Foxes^ which 
are wonderfully beautiful, andfometimes valu'd 
at 5: or 5:00 Franks ^ of common Fexes^ Otters^ 
Martens^ Wild-Cat:^ JFild Goats ^ Harts^ Porcupines-^ 
of Turkeys which are of an extraordinary big- 
nefs ^ Biifiards^ and a vaft Variety of^ other 
Animals. There may be catch'd Sturgeons^ SaU 
7nom^ Fiques.^ P'-ys^ large Breums^ Eels^ Sword- 
FijJ)^ Gilt'H, Barbels of an e:JCtraordinary 

Size i and c, ^icT Sorts of Fifti without number. 
There is an 1 ^finite Number of .S'^^-L^ridj, which 
are a Lump of fat Partridges ^ Ducks of all forts i, 
Huars^ a kind of Dottrel, (which imitates Mens 

Voices) which have an admirable Diverfity of 
Colours ^ Turtles^ Ring-Doves^ Cranes^ HeroJis^ 
^ir^w5,Bw/?^rJj,with abundance of all oth^'-'^ame. 
The great River St. Lawrence runs thro' Mid- 
dle of the Country, and has one Branch' which 
comes from a Nation call'd Nez^ or the Oiitta- 
oiiaels. On the North are the Algoiiqiim^ pof- 
fefs'd by the French ^ on the North Eaft, the Na- 
tion of Wolves^ near New-Torh Cn the Souths 
New-England^ or Boflon, On the South-Wejl^ Vir- 
glnia. In fhort, all the Countries upon the Ri** 
ver of St. jL^jrre?/^^ produce all Sorts of Herbage 
and Seeds. There are all Sorts of Materials, as 
Oak, and all other Sorts of Wood for Building 
of Ships, arid Pitch in abundance : And there 
are many Medicinal Herbs which are not in Eii" 
rope., whofe EfFeds are infallible, according to 
the Experience of the Savages. 

F I N i 

iSold '^' J. Bakor, at the Blach^Boyy 
in Pater-Nofter-Rovv. 

'T* HE Life and Adventures of Capt. John 
Jvejy, the Famous EtjgUJIj Pirate, (rais'd:- 
from a Cabbin-Boy to a King) now in Poflef- 
flon of Madagafcar. Being a fiiccindt Account 
of his Biah, Parentage, Education, Misfortune$ 
and Siicceiles, viz. His ferving the Government.' 
on Board the Refolutmi and Nonfiick Men of 
War. The Reafons why he quitted (hat Service^, 
for that of the Merchants. His putting to Sea 
in a Merchant Ship, where he drew in the Crew 
to turn Pirates with him. His failing to ycu 
matca^ where he difpos'd of the Ship^s Cargo, 
His taking -> large Ship, worth above a Million 
Sterling, .c longing to the Great Mogtil^ with 
his Grand- Daughter on Board, (who was going 
to be mar»-?u'd to the King of Perjia) attended 
by a great Iletinue of Ladies. His Marriage 
with the faid Princefs, and his Men with her 
Retinue. The Methods he took to eftal .^it 
himfelf. His Wealth, Strength, aiid Acquiirn* 
ons by Sea ad ^ ^nl. His Charadler. The 
feveral Overtures ire has made to return to I^'s 
Obedience. A Defcription 4Jt>f the Country ^ 
with its Cuftoms, ManneEs^' c'^^;:* JP'ritten by a 
Ferfon who madia his Efcap^^npm thence^ and faith* 
fully extract^ '< his JourHiA* Price 6 d^ 



Vy/^^ { -X 

^ye.- \^.Ji^ 


^if 1, \ J i! k 

|:^ vv ;''-n i:;''\\;|Hi ■; 


Deacidified using the Bookkeeper process. 
Neutralizing agent: Magnesium Oxide 
Treatment Date: Jan. 2003 



1 1 1 Thomson Park Drive 
Cranberry Township. PA 16066